Women Empowerment in India :Need for women empowerment :-
- "There is no chance of the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on one wing."- Swami Vivekananda.
- There are so many women, who are silently baring the harassment of their life partners because of the lack of education, lack of legal awareness and lack of empowerment in women.
- When women are empowered, all the society benefits.
- Educating women about health care promotes healthier families.
- Even though a woman works 24/7 to raise her children and to maintain her family, she is not getting recognition for her work at least in her home.
Points to be known :-
- Year '2001' was declared as the "women's empowerment year".
- Female Foeticide.
- Restriction on widow remarriage.
- Gender Bias.
- Neglect during childhood.
- Childhood marriages.
- Gender specific specialization at work.
- Cultural definition of appropriate gender roles.
- Belief in the inherent superiority of males.
- Notion of the family as the private sphere and under male control.
- Limited access to cash and credit.
- Limited employment opportunities.
- Limited access to education.
- Right to property is still exists only for sons.
- Female infanticide.
- Poverty effects women more.
- India's maternal mortality is highest in South Asia.
- Domestic violence.
- Crimes against women.
- Honor killings.
- Trafficking of women.
- Lack of awareness of Govt. programs.
Constitutional provisions :-
- Article 14 - Equality before law - Provides equal legal protection for women.
- Article 15(3) - Special provisions for women.
- Article 16 - Equal opportunities for all citizens in public employment irrespective of caste, sex, religion.
- Article 23 - Prohibits traffic in human beings & forced labour.
- Article 39 - The citizen, men & women equally have the right to an adequate means of livelihood.
- Article 40 - 1/3 rd of seats in panchayats shall be reserved for women.
- Article 42 - State shall make provisions for just and humane working conditions & maternity relief.
- Article 44 - Uniform civil code for the citizens throughout the territory of India to safeguard women from laws of religion.
- Article 51 A (e) - One of the duties of every citizen is to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of woman.
Government Acts :-
- Section 14 of the Hindu Succession Act 1956 - Property of a female Hindu to be her absolute property.
- Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act 2005 - Women get equal share in the ancestral property.
- Dowry prohibition Act, 1961.
- Contract Labor Act, 1970 & Factories Act, 1948 - Women can't be employed in the night between 9pm to 6am. - Women cannot be required to work for more than 9hrs.
- Equal remuneration Act, 1976.
- The indecent representation of women (prohibition) Act, 1986.
- Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
- Protection of women from domestic violence Act, 2005.
- Maternity Benefits Act, 1961.
- Child marriage (prohibition) Act, 1929.
- Hindu marriage Act, 1955 - This act was passed to stop polygamy and bigamy.
Government Schemes and Programs :-
- STEP (Support to training cum Employment for women) - To increase the self-reliance and autonomy of women by enhancing their productivity & enabling them to take up income generation activity.
- SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) - For girl child education. It lead to increase in the Gender Parity Index (GPI).
- The National literacy Mission or Saakshar Bharat - Literacy of women. Literacy is the critical instrument of women's empowerment.
- National Rural Health Mission - Educating women on health care. It has resulted in the decline in fertility rates, Maternal mortality rates (MMR), Infant mortality rates (IMR).
- SHG (Self Help Groups) - For economic development in women by giving micro finances.
- GB (Gender budgeting) - Identifying the felt needs of women and re-prioritising and increasing expenditure to meet these needs.
- NMEW (National Mission for Empowerment of Women) - To ensure economic & social empowerment of women.
- Swayamsidha scheme - To ensures total development of women.
- Swadhar scheme - Basic necessities to marginalized women & girls.
- Kishori Shakti Yojana - Empowerment of adolscent girls.
- Mahila Samridhi Yojana - For women empowerment.
- Maternity Benefit Scheme - Payment of Rs.500/- to pregnant women for the first two births only if the woman belongs to BPL (Below Poverty Line) category.
- Rastriya Mahila Kosh - To provide micro loans for women.
- Scheme for working women hostel - To promote availability of safe & conveniently located accommodation fro working women.
- Development of women & children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)- Creation of groups of women for income generating activities on self sustaining basis.
- SABLA - Empowerment of adolscent girls.
How can we take part :-
- First of all, woman must have the will to be independent & to be the best of herself, then rest of everything follows.
- Creating legal awareness among women about their rights.
- Educating women. Education makes them independent.
- Providing health & economic security.
- Skill development programs.
- Forming groups. Unity gives strength to everyone.
- And many more little things which makes significant difference and leads to the great future.
The Government and we, the people have responsibility towards women empowerment. And we can achieve this 'Millennium Development Goal' definitely. One day will come, when gender inequality will only be present in the history books.